Using this approach we found that TD children as young as 3;06 years showed understanding of some complex constructions that they had found difficult when tested using the more traditional multiple choice picture-pointing approach (see Frizelle et al., 2018a). You expect to receive, or in the past 4 years have received, any of the following from any commercial organisation that may gain financially from your submission: a salary, fees, funding, reimbursements. Given that people with DS have a cognitive impairment, we anticipated that these tasks may underestimate their comprehension abilities. Given the additional cognitive load involved in a multiple-choice format, we hypothesised that children’s performance on this task would correlate more highly than TECS-E with overall cognitive and memory abilities. In contrast, the sentence verification task is designed to minimise additional cognitive demands and may therefore be more sensitive to linguistic differences between the groups. 1) Internal consistency of TECS-E was calculated to give an index of reliability. Based on findings that individuals with DS produced relative and complement clauses in their narrative samples (Thordardottir et al., 2002), we hypothesised that many of those with DS would be able to understand these constructions, although, on the basis of prior literature, we anticipated considerable performance variation. Irregular verbs and noticing the Spanish subjunctive. Data are available on OSF under the CC-BY Attribution 4.0 International license. In contrast 26/33 (79%) of the TD children, 13/32 (40%) of the CI children and 6/33 (18%) of the DS children had perfect performance on the intransitive subject relatives on TECS-E. For our main hypothesis, the best estimate of effect size came from prior studies that compared those with Down syndrome to TD controls on composite measures of syntactic comprehension. Complete raw data for the study “The understanding of complex syntax in children with Down syndrome” is available on OSF. Children with CI of unknown aetiology also found subject intransitive relatives the least difficult construction to understand and their relative clause performance showed the following pattern: subject intrans > subject transitive = Indirect object > Object = Oblique. The test sentences were chosen on the basis of pilot work carried out by the first author, work completed by Diessel & Tomasello (2000); Diessel & Tomasello (2005) and research by Frizelle & Fletcher (2014) and Frizelle et al. Data from PMC are received and updated monthly. With five predictors we estimated a total sample of 93 (at 90% power and alpha = 0.05). TECS-E complex syntax comprehension task. It is based on three elements of a sentence: word order, word agreement, and hierarchical structure of a sentence (Hana, 2011). The 95% confidence intervals overlapped (TECS-E: 0.576–0.775; TROG-2: 0.656–0.823), indicating that the difference in magnitude between the estimates was not reliable. As is the case with most standardized measures that are designed for clinical use and not solely as research tools, children must show an understanding of the syntactically simple constructions before they progress on to those that are more complex. Finally, the DS variable was entered into the model, accounting for a further 1.2% of the variance in children’s performance on this assessment. This was followed by the memory variables (forward and backward digit accuracy scores) both of which were highly significant in accounting for a further 62% of the variance in TECS-E score. Children with DS achieved an average score of 10.25 less than the CI group (p < 0.001) showing a disproportionate difficulty in their ability to understand complex sentences. However, we also expected to be able to drop one predictor, depending on the results of our first analysis. Using the TROG-2 as the receptive language measure, studies such as those by Finestack et al. However, this format is likely to lead to children failing for reasons other than a lack of linguistic knowledge. The 40 animations represented one of 5 types of relative clause, 32 animations depicted 4 sentential complements, 32 animations represented four adverbial clauses and there were 10 catch items. In our approach, the syntactic relations of dependency between words have been represented as networks. 3.1 Reliance on Thordardottir paper for predications a) narrative may not be representative of conversational performance b) MLU may not be a suitable measure of language complexity for older individuals, You are now signed up to receive this alert, Examples of 'Non-Financial Competing Interests', Examples of 'Financial Competing Interests', If you do not have access to your original account, please. Predictors of performance on the TECS-E sentence verification task. The points represent the raw data (jittered horizontally), the bars show the means, with the surrounding rectangle showing the Bayesian 95% Highest Density Interval for the mean. Please try again, Email address not valid, please try again, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Munster, Ireland, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxon, UK, Stojanovik V. Reviewer Report For: The understanding of complex syntax in children with Down syndrome [version 2; peer review: 3 approved]. Again two measures were taken for this task: the number of trials in which the child successfully recalled the monsters in the correct order presented (span) and the number of trials in which the child recalled all the monsters in each set presented regardless of the order (accuracy). ABSTRACT The study reported here is concerned with how children acquire complex sentences for expressing their beliefs about causally related events, in the transition in language development from simple to complex syntax. Backward digit recall involves repeating a list of digits in reverse order and is regarded to be a measure of working-memory, as it requires both the storage and processing of information. CA, chronological age; NV IQ, non verbal IQ (as measured by the Figure Ground, Form completion, Classification and Sequential Order subtests of the Leiter-3); MA, mental age; FD, forward digit; BD, backward digit; VS, visuo-spatial. This testing took place in the same room used for the language assessments. We used binomial theorem to establish that a total TECS-E score of 64 or above was significantly different from chance performance at a probability level of 0.01. Our final prediction relates to the question of whether cognitive and memory variables would account for more of the variance in children’s performance on the multiple-choice comprehension task (TROG-2) than on TECS-E. In addition, we calculated the 95% confidence interval around the R2 values in the regressions using the CI.Rsqlm function from the psychometric package in R. This was used to compare total explained variance of predictors in both dependent measures. The comparable constructions included in both tests were the intransitive subject relatives (attached to a main clause object). This finding is also consistent with expressive acquisition data, (Diessel, 2004) showing that when children start to produce full bi-clausal relatives, the majority are of the intransitive subject form. I thoroughly enjoyed reading it and engaging with it memory rather than working memory were... Size of 86 the latter measure was also included addition, we have responded to each one with... S understanding of complex syntax and includes a range of each of the lexical system and vice versa use complex syntax development... 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